James Joyce’s Ulysses Written in Code?

alex atkins bookshelf booksJames Joyce’s Ulysses, published in 1922, is considered one of the finest works of modernist fiction of the 20th century; however it was considered extremely controversial. Set aside for a moment that it was considered obscene due do its fornication and masturbation sex scenes, it was also considered inscrutable for its challenging stream-of-consciousness narrative style, obscure allusions, wordplay, foreign phrases, and minimal punctuation. In fact, British war censors considered Joyce’s novel so enigmatic (in their words, “unreadable, unquotable, and unreviewable”) that they believed it was actually written in spy code. I guess you can say that Joyce was the first human “enigma machine.”

Read related posts: Why Did James Joyce Burn His Manuscript?
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For further reading: The Most Dangerous Book: The Battle for James Joyce’s Ulysses by Kevin Birmingham

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